[232], Overtaking the Port of Singapore in 2010,[233] the Port of Shanghai has become world's busiest container port with an annual TEU transportation of 42 million in 2018. [2], By the end of the Song dynasty, the center of trading had moved downstream of the Wusong River to Shanghai. [91][92], Political power in Shanghai has frequently been a stepping stone to higher positions in the central government. [61] The city experiences four distinct seasons. [311], On 23 January 2014, Yang Xiong, the mayor of Shanghai, announced that three main measures would be taken to manage the air pollution in Shanghai, along with surrounding Anhui, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang provinces. More than 10,000 shops and hundreds of factories and public buildings[48] were destroyed, leaving Zhabei district ruined. Vegetation can be grown in the courtyard, and it can also allow for sunlight and ventilation to the rooms. Other notable parks in Shanghai include Lu Xun Park, Century Park, Gucun Park [zh], Gongqing Forest Park, and Jing'an Park. [295] Some of the parks also have become popular tourist attractions due to their unique location, history, or architecture. Shanghai est un bon exemple de ville mondialisée : par sa taille, sa population, sa croissance, ses aménagements et ses liens avec le monde, cette ville chinoise représente [190] As of October 2019[update], the city's National College Entrance Examination (Gaokao) is structured under the "3+3" system, in which all general senior high school students study three compulsory subjects (Chinese, English, and math) and three subjects chosen from six options (physics, chemistry, biology, history, geography, and politics). [10] Shanghai's six largest industries—retail, finance, IT, real estate, machine manufacturing, and automotive manufacturing—comprise about half the city's GDP. Pudong (lit. Shanghai is home to several soccer teams, including two in the Chinese Super League: Shanghai Greenland Shenhua and Shanghai Port. Although every district has its own urban core, the city hall and major administrative units are located in Huangpu District, which also serves as a commercial area, including the famous Nanjing Road. Shanghai est connecté à son arrière-pays par voie fluviale. However, the Jewish refugees' stay in Kobe was short as the Japanese government transferred them to Shanghai by November 1941. [34] On 30 May 1925, the May Thirtieth Movement broke out when a worker in a Japanese-owned cotton mill was shot and killed by a Japanese foreman. [44] In the 1920s and 1930s, almost 20,000 White Russians fled the newly established Soviet Union to reside in Shanghai. Shanghaï : la crise justifie l'intervention de l'Etat. 1. L'empire Disney débarque cette semaine dans l'empire du Milieu, en inaugurant à Shanghai son premier parc d'attractions de Chine continentale. Shanghai has four major railway stations: Shanghai railway station, Shanghai South railway station, Shanghai West railway station, and Shanghai Hongqiao railway station. 200002 Shanghai. [299], One of Shanghai's newer parks is the Xujiahui Park, which was built in 1999, on the former grounds of the Great Chinese Rubber Works Factory and the EMI Recording Studio (now La Villa Rouge restaurant). [239] Haipai culture emerged after Shanghai became a prosperous port in the early 20th century, with numerous foreigners from Europe, America, Japan, and India moving into the city. pp.197–216. 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[195] The train can complete the 30-kilometer (19 mi) journey between Longyang Road Station and Pudong International Airport in 7 minutes 20 seconds,[196] comparing to 32 minutes by Metro Line 2[197] and 30 minutes by car. [34], The Chinese-held Old City of Shanghai fell to rebels from the Small Swords Society in 1853, but was recovered by the Qing government in February 1855. Shanghai se compose donc de deux parties distinctes, Puxi et Pudong (qui signifient respectivement à l'ouest et à l'est du Pu). Étant donné que Shanghai commence à retrouver sa position de ville d'affaires de premier plan en Asie de l'Est, ... Les 23 millions d'habitants de Shanghai jouissent du plus haut revenu du continent et ils ont l’embarras du choix pour satisfaire leurs folies, comme en témoigne la série de restaurants de célébrités et de magasins phares de mode. Shanghai has been described as the "showpiece" of the booming economy of China. [186] Shanghai is also home to the cadre school China Executive Leadership Academy in Pudong and the China Europe International Business School. The city has many Chinese–foreign joint education institutes [zh], such as the Shanghai University–University of Technology Sydney Business School since 1994, the University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute since 2006, and New York University Shanghai—the first China–U.S. [i], Seven of the districts govern suburbs, satellite towns, and rural areas farther away from the urban core: Baoshan,[j] Minhang,[k] Jiading,[l] Jinshan,[m] Songjiang,[n] Qingpu,[o] and Fengxian.[p]. [248] The China Art Museum, located in the former China Pavilion of Expo 2010, is one of the largest museums in Asia and displays an animated replica of the 12th century painting Along the River During the Qingming Festival. The Shanghai Disney Resort Project was approved by the government on 4 November 2009[302] and opened in 2016. [55], As the industrial center of China with the most skilled industrial workers, Shanghai became a center for radical leftism during the 1950s and 1960s. Elle est située sur la rivière de Huangpu près de l'embouchure du Yangzi Jiang, à l'est de la Chine. [133] As of 2019[update], the city had 71 five star hotels, 61 four star hotels, 1,758 travel agencies, 113 rated tourist attractions, and 34 red tourist attractions. [110], Shanghai has been described as the "showpiece" of the booming economy of China. The first was in 1986, with a new promenade by the Dutch architect Paulus Snoeren. Around the same time, a Shanghai-style Beijing Opera was formed. Sa croissance à deux chiffres, les 18,9 millions d'habitants de sa région urbaine, sa mutation cosmopolite et son essor culturel l'appellent à devenir une métropole mondiale, aux côtés de New York, Londres ou Paris. [134] In August 2014, fDi magazine named Shanghai the "Chinese Province of the Future 2014/15" due to "particularly impressive performances in the Business Friendliness and Connectivity categories, as well as placing second in the Economic Potential and Human Capital and Lifestyle categories". [200] By 1925, there were 328 tramcars and 14 routes operated by Chinese, French, and British companies collaboratively,[201] all of which were nationalized after the PRC's victory in 1949. Two HSRs are under construction: Shanghai–Nantong railway and Shanghai–Suzhou–Huzhou HSR [zh]. [30] A City God Temple was built in 1602 during the Wanli reign. "C'est rare de voir des manifestations sur le continent", dit une étudiante de 21 ans qui se présente sous son nom de famille, Zhu. C'est désormais la première interface maritime de Chine, c'est-à-dire que le port est une zone de contact entre le … Il semble aujourd'hui que la ville soit en passe de retrouver la place de centre financier de l'Asie qu'elle occupait auparavant. [156] The religion also has its own college, the Shanghai Buddhist College [zh], and its own press, Shanghai Buddhological Press [zh]. Sur les quinze établissements africains figurant au classement de Shanghai 2019, treize sont sud-africains ou égyptiens. [274] In 1907, Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly (黑奴吁天录) was performed at the Lyceum Theatre [zh]. Shanghai (Chinese: 上海, Shanghainese pronunciation [zɑ̃̀.hɛ́] (listen), Standard Mandarin pronunciation: [ʂâŋ.xài] (listen)) is one of the four direct-administered municipalities of the People's Republic of China, governed by the State Council. 1Special economic-zone Cities. They lived in a designated area called the Shanghai Ghetto and formed a community centered on the Ohel Moishe Synagogue, which is now the Shanghai Jewish Refugees Museum. [170][171], Shanghai is an international center of research and development and is ranked 5th globally and 2nd in the whole Asia and the Pacific (after Beijing) by scientific research outputs, as tracked by the Nature Index. Shanghai's film industry grew during the early 1930s, generating stars such as Hu Die, Ruan Lingyu, Zhou Xuan, Jin Yan, and Zhao Dan. [7], Downtown Shanghai is bisected by the Huangpu River, a man-made tributary of the Yangtze created by order of Lord Chunshen during the Warring States period. [10] A number of China's most prestigious universities entering the global university rankings are based in Shanghai, including Fudan University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Tongji University, East China Normal University, Shanghai University, East China University of Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai University of Finance and Economics, and Shanghai International Studies University. [278] The movie In the Mood for Love directed by Wong Kar-wai, a Shanghai native, depicts a slice of the displaced Shanghainese community in Hong Kong and the nostalgia for that era, featuring 1940s music by Zhou Xuan. [193] The average fare ranges from CN¥3 (US$0.48) to CN¥9 (US$1.28), depending on the travel distance. By 1932, Shanghai had become the world's fifth largest city and home to 70,000 foreigners. Jean-Marc F. Blanchard "China’s Maritime Silk Road Initiative and South Asia" (2019). Seven of the districts govern Puxi (lit. The port experienced thriving trade with provinces along the Yangtze and the Chinese coast, as well as with foreign countries such as Japan and Silla. [119], As of March 2021, Shanghai has the world's second-highest number of billionaires of any city in the world after Beijing. Elle constitue aussi l'une des plus grandes mégapoles du monde avec plus de dix-huit millions d'habitants. [297] Built in 1914 as Jessfield Park, it once contained the campus of St. John's University, Shanghai's first international college; today, the park features sakura and peony gardens and a 150-year-old platanus,[298] and it also serves as an interchange hub in the metro system. [32] The war ended in 1842 with the Treaty of Nanking, which opened Shanghai as one of the five treaty ports for international trade. Many areas in the former foreign concessions are also well-preserved, the most notable being the French Concession. [111][112] The city is a global center for finance and innovation,[113][114] and a national center for commerce, trade, and transportation,[115] with the world's busiest container port—the Port of Shanghai. [280] Shanghai Fashion Week is considered to be an event of national significance featuring both international and Chinese designers. Many national expressways (prefixed with the letter G) pass through or end in Shanghai, including Jinghu Expressway (overlaps with Hurong Expressway), Shenhai Expressway, Hushaan Expressway, Huyu Expressway, Hukun Expressway (overlaps with Hangzhou Bay Ring Expressway), and Shanghai Ring Expressway. [82] Completed in 2015, the tower takes the form of nine twisted sections stacked atop each other, totaling 128 floors. Le port est relié au continent par le pont de Donghai de 32,5 kilomètres, dont 26 km en continu au-dessus de la mer. Les premières installations de Yangshan ont ouvert en 2005, construites en partie sur les îles Yangshan, de petites îles totalement transformées pour accueillir les infrastructures.Le port est relié au continent par le pont de Donghai de 32,5 kilomètres, dont 26 kilomètres en continu au-dessus de la mer. Le 20 janvier 1848, Charles de Montigny, récemment nommé agent consulaire, débarque à Shanghai. See Template:Administrative divisions of Taiwan instead. Shanghai has an extensive public park system; by 2018, the city had 300 parks, of which 281 had free admission, and the per capita park area was 8.2 m2 (88 sq ft). In 2011, the largest botanical garden in Shanghai—Shanghai Chen Shan Botanical Garden—opened in Songjiang District.[301]. [303] [252], Benbang cuisine (本帮菜)[253] is cooking style that originated in the 1600s, with influences from surrounding provinces. [139][140], Shanghai is home to China (Shanghai) Pilot Free-Trade Zone, the first free-trade zone in mainland China. [285][286] Shanghai's baseball team, the Shanghai Golden Eagles, plays in the China Baseball League. On average, 8.7 days exceed 35 °C (95 °F) annually. In the 1990s, economic reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping a decade earlier resulted in an intense redevelopment of the city, especially the Pudong New Area, aiding the return of finance and foreign investment. During the First Opium War (1839–1842), British forces occupied the city. Since 2004, it has hosted the Chinese Grand Prix, a round of the Formula One World Championship. [261] In the mid 19th century, the Shanghai School movement commenced, focusing less on the symbolism emphasized by the Literati style but more on the visual content of painting through the use of bright colors. Public awareness of the environment is growing, and the city is investing in a number of environmental protection projects. It measured 10 m (33 ft) high and 5 km (3 mi) in circumference. Built in 1876, the Woosung railway was the first railway in Shanghai and the first railway in operation in China[219] By 1909, Shanghai–Nanjing railway and Shanghai–Hangzhou railway were in service. Les activités du tertiaire supérieur sont très développées (formation, recherche, etc.). As of April 2020[update], Shanghai is twinned with the following regions, cities, and counties:[326], As of September 2020, Shanghai hosts 71 consulates general and 5 consulates, excluding Hong Kong and Macao trade office.[328]. 华亭[c] (Huátíng) was another early name for Shanghai. Enseignement supérieur : le leadership continental de l’Afrique du Sud et de l’Égypte confirmé par le classement de Shanghai 2019. Scholars have theorized that this likely reflected the town's economic importance, as opposed to its low political status. [184][185] In 2013, the Shanghai Municipality and the Chinese Academy of Sciences founded the ShanghaiTech University in the Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park in Pudong. Shanghai—Lujiazui in particular—has numerous skyscrapers, making it the fifth city in the world with the most skyscrapers. [208], As of 2019[update], a total of 40,000 taxis were in operation in Shanghai. Mi Fu, a scholar and artist of the Song dynasty, served as its mayor. A round-trip ticket costs CN¥80 (US$12.80), and VIP tickets cost double the standard fare. Yet, even during the most tumultuous times of the revolution, Shanghai was able to maintain economic production with positive annual growth rate. This honor was usually reserved for prefectural capitals and not normally given to a mere county seat such as Shanghai. [69] Shanghai is also home to many architecturally distinctive and even eccentric buildings, including the Shanghai Museum, the Shanghai Grand Theatre, the Shanghai Oriental Art Center, and the Oriental Pearl Tower. [118] In 2019, the average annual disposable income of Shanghai's residents was CN¥69,442 (US$9,808) per capita, making it one of the wealthiest cities in China,[10] but also the most expensive city in mainland China to live in according to a 2017 study by the Economist Intelligence Unit. In July 1921, the Communist Party of China was founded in the French Concession. Shanghai is also known for its sugary cuisine, distinctive local language and vibrant international flair. [58] Its importance to the fiscal well-being of the central government also denied it from economic liberalizations begun in 1978. 申 (Shēn) or 申城 (Shēnchéng, "Shen City") was an early name originating from Lord Chunshen, a 3rd-century BC nobleman and prime minister of the state of Chu, whose fief included modern Shanghai.

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